### Abstract

In this paper we look at three dimensional (3D) lattice models that are generalizations of the state sum model used to define the Kuperberg invariant of 3-manifolds. The partition function is a scalar constructed as a tensor network where the building blocks are tensors given by the structure constants of an involutory Hopf algebra A. These models are very general and are hard to solve in its entire parameter space. One can obtain familiar models, such as ordinary gauge theories, by letting A be the group algebra ℂ (G) of a discrete group G and staying on a certain region of the parameter space. We consider the transfer matrix of the model and show that quantum double Hamiltonians are derived from a particular choice of the parameters. Such a construction naturally leads to the star and plaquette operators of the quantum double Hamiltonians, of which the toric code is a special case when A = ℂ(ℤ2). This formulation is convenient to study ground states of these generalized quantum double models where they can naturally be interpreted as tensor network states. For a surface Σ, the ground state degeneracy is determined by the Kuperberg 3-manifold invariant of Σ x S^{1}. It is also possible to obtain extra models by simply enlarging the allowed parameter space but keeping the solubility of the model. While some of these extra models have appeared before in the literature, our 3D perspective allows for an uniform description of them.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 375204 |

Pages (from-to) | 1-51 |

Number of pages | 51 |

Journal | Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical |

Volume | 47 |

Issue number | 37 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 19 Sep 2014 |

Externally published | Yes |

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### Keywords

- 3-Manifold invariants
- Toplogical quantum computation
- Topological quantum field theory

### Cite this

*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical*,

*47*(37), 1-51. [375204]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/47/37/375204