A bias against disconfirmatory evidence is associated with delusion proneness in a nonclinical sample

Todd S. Woodward*, Lisa Buchy, Steffen Moritz, Mario Liotti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


Previous work has suggested that a bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) may be associated with the schizophrenia spectrum. The current investigation focused on whether a BADE (1) overlaps with traditional measures of memory and executive functions or selectively taps into a unique aspect of cognition and (2) is correlated with delusional ideation but not with other aspects of schizotypy. Sixty-eight undergraduate students were administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the BADE test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Trail Making Tests A and B (TMT), and tests used to estimate IQ. Factor analysis of all cognition measures resulted in a 6-factor solution, 4 of which reflected the 4 domains of neuropsychological tests (WCST, RAVLT, TMT, and IQ), and 2 of which reflected different aspects of the BADE test: Initial Belief and Integration of Disconfirmatory Evidence. This solution suggests that BADE measures were independent from the other cognitive domains measured. Integration of Disconfirmatory Evidence was the only factor that correlated with delusion-content subscales of the SPQ, providing support for the contribution of a BADE to delusional ideation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1023-1028
Number of pages6
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Cognition
  • Decision making
  • Delusions
  • Reasoning
  • Schizotypy


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