A critical analysis of technology‐enhanced learning design frameworks

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Numerous models have been developed to help teachers efficiently and effectively design learning opportunities using new and emerging technologies. However, the literature to date makes little reference to the variation that exists within the models and frameworks as far as their scope, context, epistemological and pedagogical underpinnings and so on. In this paper, we critically contrast models of technology‐enhanced learning design in order to support educator selection of models, as well as to derive an overarching understanding of how learning design models may differ ontologically. A total of 21 models were selected from a systematic search of the technology‐enhanced learning design research literature. Findings indicated that technology‐enhanced learning design models can be differentiated according to whether they constitute a conceptual framework or a procedural method, their epistemological and pedagogical underpinnings, the level of granularity of the model, the extent to which contextual elements are considered, whether interactions between teachers and students are integral, whether guidance for selecting technologies is included and whether any sort of evaluation of the model has been conducted. The utility of each of these dimensions in terms of supporting technology‐enhanced learning design is considered, and the value more broadly of learning design models is critically discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)981-997
Number of pages17
JournalBritish Journal of Educational Technology
Issue number6
Early online date2018
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018


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