Objective: To compare concentrations of factor VII coagulant activity (factor VIIc), fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and blood lipids on a saturated fat-rich diet with one rich in monounsaturated fat. Design: Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. The study design was an ABB/BAA extra-period crossover. One group consumed a diet rich in saturated fatty acid (SFA) with fat making up 20.8% of total energy, for 5 weeks and then one rich in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), with fat making up 20.3% of total energy for 10 weeks. The other group consumed the MUFA diet for 5 weeks followed by the SFA diet for 10 weeks. Subjects/setting: Men and women aged 35 to 69 years who were nonsmokers with no chronic illness and not on any medication were recruited to participate. Eighteen subjects were recruited and 15 (5 men, 10 women) completed the community-based study. Intervention: Blood was sampled at the beginning and end point of each 5-week diet period for analysis of coagulation and fibrinolysis factors and blood lipids. Subjects kept 3-day food diaries twice during each of the three diet periods and were weighed on each visit for blood collection. Analysis of plasma fatty acids was used to indicate dietary compliance. Main outcome measures: Differences in fasting factor VIIc, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1 and B, and plasma oleic acid levels while receiving the SFA diet vs MUFA diet. Statistical analysis: A general linear model allowing for the ABB/BAA extra-period crossover, was used for each of the outcome measures. Results: Factor VIIc was lower on the MUFA diet (P<.05) but fibrinogen and insulin concentrations and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity did not differ between diets. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001) and triglyceride (P<.01) levels were lower on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet. A significant increase in both plasma phospholipid and neutral lipid oleic acid (P<.0001) occurred on the MUFA diet. Conclusions: Substitution of foods rich in saturated fat with foods rich in high-oleic-acid sunflower oil and margarine has favorable outcomes on blood lipids and factor VIIc. This oil presents another useful source of MUFA for diets aimed at prevention of heart disease.