In this paper, we introduce a High-order Markov-Switching (HMS) model for measuring the risk of a portfolio. We suppose that the rate of return from a risky portfolio follows an HMS model with the drift and the volatility modulated by a discrete-time weak Markov chain. The states of the weak Markov chain are interpreted as observable states of an economy. We adopt the Value-at-Risk (VaR) as a metric for market risk quantification and examine the high-order effect of the underlying Markov chain on the risk measures via backtesting.
- Higher-order Markov chain process
- Risk management
- Weak Markov chain process