Neuroendoscopy has become a well-accepted technique in neurosurgery. After the introduction of the endoscope in medical practice by Phillip Bozzini in 1806, influential individuals such as Harold Hopkins and Karl Storz paved the way for its current success. With the present pace of technologic advancements, great improvement in the instrumentation is expected along with the status of neuroendoscopy in the neurosurgical field. Specific attention is given to the history of the development of the endoscope, while also discussing more recent advances dating from 1990 onward. The importance of each development for the purpose of the instrument is explained. Gaps in the literature regarding the technical aspects of neuroendoscopy, including the optical physics in the endoscope, three-dimensional endoscopy, and clinical applications of neuroendoscopy and robotics, are addressed.