A Layered controlled natural language for knowledge representation

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4 Citations (Scopus)


The article describes the development of a layered controlled natural language for knowledge representation. These languages can serve as their own meta-language and have a greater flexibility and expressive power than any formal language. The PENG-L framework consisting of a set of controlled natural languages was designed for knowledge representation. PENG-L provides a canonical grammatical schema that can be adjusted to define various layers of controlled natural language with different expressive power.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-106
Number of pages22
JournalLingvisticæ investigationes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • language and languages
  • information theory
  • language and languages -- grammars
  • grammar -- comparative and general
  • metalanguage
  • natural language processing (Computer science)
  • knowledge representation (Information theory)
  • artificial intelligence

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