A longitudinal investigation of sleep hygiene as a mediator linking parental warmth with adolescent sleep

Cele E. Richardson*, Natasha R. Magson, Ella L Oar, Jasmine Fardouly, Carly J. Johnco, Justin Y. A. Freeman, Ronald M. Rapee

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)
    32 Downloads (Pure)


    Study Objectives
    Parental warmth in adolescence protects sleep in early adulthood, yet the nature, directions, and mechanisms of this association across adolescence are unknown. This study examined parental warmth, adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep outcomes (morning/eveningness, school night sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness) across five annual waves, spanning four years, using a cross-lagged panel design.

    Adolescents and one primary caregiver (96% mothers) completed questionnaires assessing parental warmth (child- and parent-report) and adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep (child-report), across five annual waves: Wave 1 (N = 531, Mage = 11.18, SD = 0.56, 51% male), Wave 2 (N = 504, Mage = 12.19, SD = 0.53, 52% male), Wave 3 (N = 478, Mage = 13.19, SD = 0.53, 52% male), Wave 4 (N = 440, Mage = 14.76, SD = 0.47, 51% male), and Wave 5 (N = 422, Mage = 15.75, SD = 0.49, 51% male).

    Greater child-reported parental warmth was indirectly associated with better adolescent sleep (greater morningness, longer school night sleep duration, less sleepiness) through healthier sleep hygiene. The inverse was also often observed. Warmth had a direct relationship with sleep duration and sleepiness, independent of sleep hygiene. Parent-reported parental warmth did not predict, nor was predicted by child-reported adolescent sleep.

    Parental warmth may protect against developmental changes in adolescent sleep, partially by improving sleep hygiene practices. Similarly, inadequate adolescent sleep may negatively impact parental warmth via deteriorating sleep hygiene. Sleep hygiene emerged as a key mechanism for protecting adolescent sleep and parent-child relationships.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberzsac267
    Pages (from-to)1-12
    Number of pages12
    Issue number7
    Early online date8 Nov 2022
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Jul 2023

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright the Author(s) 2022. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


    • morning/eveningness preference
    • sleep duration
    • sleepiness
    • parenting style
    • risk/protective factor


    Dive into the research topics of 'A longitudinal investigation of sleep hygiene as a mediator linking parental warmth with adolescent sleep'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this