In Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld (DVB-H) devices for cyber-physical social systems, the Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform-Orthogonal Chirp Division Multiplexing (DFrFT-OCDM) has been suggested to enhance the performance over Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems under time and frequency-selective fading channels. In this case, the need for equalizers like the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) and Zero-Forcing (ZF) arises, though it is excessively complex due to the need for a matrix inversion, especially for DVB-H extensive symbol lengths. In this work, a low complexity equalizer, Least-Squares Minimal Residual (LSMR) algorithm, is used to solve the matrix inversion iteratively. The paper proposes the LSMR algorithm for linear and nonlinear equalizers with the simulation results, which indicate that the proposed equalizer has significant performance and reduced complexity over the classical MMSE equalizer and other low complexity equalizers, in time and frequency-selective fading channels.
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- Least-squares minimal residual (LSMR)
- digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H)
- orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
- zero-forcing (ZF)
- cyber-physical social systems
- zero-forcing (ZF) and cyber-physical social systems