A Message in the medium? Assessing the reliability of psychopathology e-questionnaires

Simon R. Jones, Charles Fernyhough, Lee de-Wit, Elizabeth Meins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


Internet-based questionnaires (e-questionnaires) have become widely used in psychopathology research, but there is currently little evidence on their reliability as compared with pen-and-paper equivalents. Data from separate samples of young adults completing e-questionnaires on hallucination-proneness (N = 751) and persecutory ideation (N = 183) were compared with data from pen-and-paper versions of the same questionnaires completed by a third, unrelated sample (N = 188). There was no effect of modality of presentation on mean scores on these questionnaires. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis indicated mode invariance of factor structure for the persecutory ideation questionnaire. Internal reliability of both questionnaire formats was satisfactory. We conclude that the administration of traditional measures of psychopathology via e-questionnaire is a reliable method of data collection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)349-359
Number of pages11
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • E-questionnaires
  • Hallucination
  • Pen-and-paper
  • Persecutory delusions
  • Psychopathology
  • Reliability


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