A new method for assessment of retronasal olfactory function

Ayaho Yoshino*, Goekhan Goektas, Mehmet K. Mahmut, Yunmeng Zhu, Oender Goektas, Taro Komachi, Kimihiro Okubo, Thomas Hummel

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)


    Objectives/Hypothesis: The aim of the study was to develop a test for the assessment of retronasal olfaction in healthy participants and patients with olfactory disorders using “tasteless” powders. Study Design: Prospective case–control series. Methods: A total of 150 participants (110 women, 40 men, mean age = 40 ± 16 years) were recruited for this study; 100 were healthy controls and 50 were patients with olfactory loss due to infections of the upper respiratory tract (n = 25), idiopathic causes (n = 12), sinonasal disease (n = 7), and head trauma (n = 6). Orthonasal olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks test battery, and retronasal olfaction was evaluated using powders lacking distinctive tastes administered to the oral cavity. To establish test–retest reliability, healthy participants had their orthonasal and retronasal function tested twice. Results: The validity analyses revealed that the selected 16 stimuli differentiated between normosmic participants and patients with olfactory loss, and that retronasal and orthonasal olfaction were highly correlated. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that patients with olfactory loss and controls can be clearly separated using a reliable test of retronasal olfaction based on 16 retronasal stimuli. Level of Evidence: 2b Laryngoscope, 2020.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)E324-E330
    Number of pages7
    Issue number2
    Early online date28 Apr 2020
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


    • olfaction disorders
    • retronasal identification test
    • retronasal olfaction
    • smell


    Dive into the research topics of 'A new method for assessment of retronasal olfactory function'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this