Metarhizium anisopliae is a naturally occurring cosmopolitan fungus infecting greyback canegrubs (Dermolepida albohirtum). The main molecular factors involved in the complex interactions occurring between the greyback canegrubs and M. anisopliae (FI-1045) were investigated by comparing the proteomes of healthy canegrubs, canegrubs infected with Metarhizium and fungus only. Differentially expressed proteins from the infected canegrubs were subjected to mass spectrometry to search for pathogenicity related proteins. Immune-related proteins of canegrubs identified in this study include cytoskeletal proteins (actin), cell communication proteins, proteases and peptidases. Fungal proteins identified include metalloproteins, acyl-CoA, cyclin proteins and chorismate mutase. Comparative proteome analysis provided a view into the cellular reactions triggered in the canegrub in response to the fungal infection at the onset of biological control.