A randomised phase II trial of three dosing regimens of radium-223 in patients with bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

C. N. Sternberg*, F. Saad, J. N. Graff, A. Peer, U. N. Vaishampayan, E. Leung, E. Rosenbaum, H. Gurney, R. J. Epstein, I. D. Davis, B. Wu, L. Trandafir, V. J. Wagner, M. Hussain

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background: Radium-223 prolongs overall survival and delays symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and bone metastases. The approved radium-223 regimen is 55 kBq/kg every 4 weeks (q4w) for six cycles (standard dose). We investigated different radium-223 regimens in patients with mCRPC. Patients and methods: Patients were randomised 1: 1: 1 to radium-223 standard-dose, high-dose (88 kBq/kg q4w for six cycles) or extended-schedule arms (55 kBq/kg q4w for 12 cycles). The primary end point, SSE-free survival (SSE-FS), was compared in patients treated with a high- versus standard-dose regimen, or with a standard dose in an extended (>6 to 12 cycles) versus standard schedule (six cycles). Results: A total of 391 patients were randomised; baseline characteristics were balanced between arms. On-treatment SSEs developed in 37/130 (28%), 42/130 (32%) and 48/131 (37%) patients in the standard-dose, high-dose and extended-schedule arms, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in SSE-FS in the high- versus standard-dose arms [median 12.9 months versus 12.3 months; hazard ratio (HR) 1.06, 80% confidence interval (CI) 0.88–1.27, P = 0.70], and in the extended- versus standard-schedule arms (median 10.8 months versus 13.2 months; HR 1.26, 80% CI 0.94–1.69, P = 0.31). Overall survival in the three treatment arms was similar. As many as 370 (95%) patients received treatment (median of six cycles) in each arm. Grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) affected 34% of patients in the standard-dose, 48% in the high-dose and 53% in the extended-schedule arm, causing permanent discontinuation in 9%, 16% and 17% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Radium-223 high-dose or extended-schedule regimens resulted in no change in SSE-FS or other efficacy end points and were associated with more grade ≥3 TEAEs. The extended-schedule regimen (beyond six doses) could not be implemented in a large proportion of patients due to disease progression. Therefore, the standard-dose schedule remains one of the standard therapies for patients with symptomatic mCRPC. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023697.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-265
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • bone metastases
  • mCRPC
  • radium-223 dose
  • safety
  • symptomatic skeletal events

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