Background: The mucoactive effects of hypertonic saline should promote exacerbation resolution in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Objectives: To determine the effects of hypertonic saline inhalation during hospitalisation for exacerbation of CF on length of stay, lung function, symptoms, oxygenation, exercise tolerance, quality of life, bacterial load and time to next hospitalisation. Methods: 132 adults with an exacerbation of CF were randomised to inhale three nebulised doses a day of either 4 mL 7% saline or a taste-masked control of 0.12% saline, throughout the hospital admission. The primary outcome measure was length of hospital stay. Results: All participants tolerated their allocated saline solution. There was no significant difference in length of stay, which was 12 days in the hypertonic saline group and 13 days in controls, with a mean between-group difference (MD) of 1 day (95% CI 0 to 2). The likelihood of regaining pre-exacerbation FEV1 by discharge was significantly higher in the hypertonic saline group (75% vs 57%), and the number needed to treat was 6 (95% CI 3 to 65). On a 0-100 scale, the hypertonic saline group had significantly greater reduction in symptom severity than the control group at discharge in sleep (MD=13, 95% CI 4 to 23), congestion (MD=10, 95% CI 3 to 18) and dyspnoea (MD=8, 95% CI 1 to 16). No significant difference in time to next hospitalisation for a pulmonary exacerbation was detected between groups (HR=0.86 (CI 0.57 to 1.30), p=0.13). Other outcomes did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Addition of hypertonic saline to the management of a CF exacerbation did not reduce the length of hospital stay. Hypertonic saline speeds the resolution of exacerbation symptoms and allows patients to leave hospital with greater symptom resolution.