A review of current and emerging therapeutic options for erectile dysfunction

Eric Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
79 Downloads (Pure)


Contemporary treatment algorithms for erectile dysfunction (ED) involve the use of medical therapies such as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and intracavernosal injection therapy of vasoactive agents, as well as vacuum erection devices and penile prosthesis implants in medically refractory cases. However, the current therapeutic options only address the symptoms of ED and not the underlying pathogenesis that results in ED. Newer and novel ED therapies aspire to reverse ED conditions by preventing cavernosal fibrosis, promoting endothelial revascularization and modulating various neuro-hormonal pathways. Regenerative therapeutic strategies such as low-intensity shock wave, gene and cellular-based therapies, and penile transplants are designed to improve penile hemodynamics and revitalize the cavernosal smooth muscle to mitigate and/or reverse underlying ED. This state-of-art article evaluates current and emerging therapeutic options for ED.

Original languageEnglish
Article number91
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalMedical Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 29 Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • erectile dysfunction
  • phosphodiesterase type 5
  • intracavernosal injection
  • penile prosthesis implant
  • low-intensity shock wave
  • stem cell
  • gene therapy
  • platelet rich plasma
  • microvascular stent
  • penile transplant


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