A review of the biology of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea

G. H. Pyke*, A. W. White

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


The Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea is an unusual endangered frog species. It has a high public profile as many populations occur in areas affected by human activities. As a result, there has been considerable recent scientific and popular interest in the species. Despite the interest and large volume of documented information there has been no general review of the biology of the species. Litoria aurea is not typical of other endangered species. It has many attributes of a "weedy" or "colonizing" species. Like other such species, it is characterised by occurrence in disturbed or newly created sites, high fecundity and high dispersal ability. However, unlike many "colonizing" species that are very common, L. aurea is considered to be endangered. Though the decline of L. aurea is continuing as a result of ongoing threats, it should be possible to promote some recovery of the species through such strategies as increased legislative protection, conservation agreements, habitat manipulation, and control of the impacts of the introduced Plague Minnow Gambusia holbrooki. As in many similar situations, further research will be essential to provide the necessary information-base for the threats to be arrested and the opportunities to be pursued. In this paper we review all available published information with regard to the biology of L. aurea, and include some previously unpublished field observations. We consider the implications of this review in terms of recovery and/or management of the species and the extent of further research on L. aurea that could benefit the recovery process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)563-598
Number of pages36
JournalAustralian Zoologist
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Biology
  • Endangered
  • Frog
  • Litoria aurea
  • Review


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