A review of the biology of the Southern Bell Frog Litoria raniformis (Anura: Hylidae)

Graham H. Pyke*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The Southern Bell Frog Litoria raniformis, like the closely-related Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea, is considered to be threatened with extinction and subject to the future development of strategies aimed at its recovery. A necessary component of this recovery process will be a detailed and comprehensive review of available biological information concerning this species. This paper aims to provide such a review. Litoria raniformis is, at least in comparison with L aurea, poorly studied and many aspects of its biology warrant further investigation. Research conducted to date, however, reveals few, if any, differences in biology between the two species. They are similar in size, appearance, call, breeding biology, habitat and general behaviour. Recovery strategies for the two species are therefore likely to be similar. Both are apparently threatened by habitat loss and modification, and by predation by the introduced Plague Minnow or Gambusia Gambusia holbrooki, and so may benefit from increased legal protection and control of Gambusia impact. Both are able to live in sites that are largely or completely human-made, and so may benefit from programs to either enhance or develop suitable habitat. Disturbance, either natural or human-induced, is apparently important to both frog species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-48
Number of pages17
JournalAustralian Zoologist
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Frog conservation
  • Gambusia holbrooki
  • Litoria raniformis
  • Threatened frog species


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