A Screening strategy for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that accurately identifies patients requiring neurological review

Mark Bloch, Jody Kamminga, Avindra Jayewardene, Michael Bailey, Angela Carberry, Trina Vincent, Dick Quan, Paul Maruff, Bruce Brew, Lucette A. Cysique

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    48 Citations (Scopus)


    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not routinely assessed due to the lack of an adequate screening strategy. We aimed to develop a clinically relevant screening procedure for symptomatic HAND, validated against a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) test battery. Methods. Representative HIV-infected (HIV+) and demographically matched HIV-uninfected (HIV−) participants in an observational study completed a standard evaluation for mood, drug and/or alcohol use, and activities of daily living and a newly designed 20-minute computerized CogState battery that assessed 5 cognitive domains. A subset completed standard NP assessment for 8 cognitive domains. HAND definition on screening and gold standard NP was determined using demographically corrected z scores and the global deficit score (≥ 0.5), applying the Frascati criteria. Participants were blinded to screening results, and the NP examiner was blinded to screening and HIV status. Results. A total of 254 HIV+ participants were enrolled—mean age, 48.9 ± 10.2 years; median nadir CD4, 270 cells/mL; tertiary educated, 54%; and HIV− controls, 72. HIV+ HAND screening prevalence was 30.7% (HIV-associated dementia, 3.2%; mild neurocognitive disorder, 12.6%; and asymptomatic neurocognitive disorder, 15.0%; HIV− group: 13.9%; P = .004). Of the 75 participants who completed the NP battery, the HAND rate in the HIV+ group was 50.9% vs 43.4% by screening (P > .50). HAND screening vs gold standard NP sensitivity was 76% and specificity was 71%. Clinically relevant HIV-associated dementia and mild neurocognitive disorder sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 98% (positive predictive value 0.92). Conclusions. Symptomatic HAND warranting neurological review was accurately predicted using a CogState-based screening procedure.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)687-693
    Number of pages7
    JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016


    • HIV
    • HAND
    • neurocognitive screening


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