A self-report measure of subtle avoidance and safety behaviors relevant to social anxiety

development and psychometric properties

Samantha Cuming, Ronald M. Rapee*, Nicola Kemp, Maree J. Abbott, Lorna Peters, Jonathan E. Gaston

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)
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According to cognitive theories, safety-seeking behaviors are crucial in both the maintenance and management of social anxiety. In order to facilitate assessment of these behaviors the Subtle Avoidance Frequency Examination (SAFE) was developed. Three factors emerged from the SAFE, which appeared to reflect active "safety" behaviors, subtle restriction of behavior, and behaviors aimed at avoiding or concealing physical symptoms. The SAFE demonstrated strong internal consistency, good construct validity and the ability to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical participants. In addition, the SAFE was responsive to the effects of treatment. Given its excellent psychometric properties, the SAFE may be useful to further investigate the role of safety strategies in social anxiety and to assess treatment outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)879-883
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Anxiety Disorders
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2009


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