A simple monopole antenna with a switchable beam for 5g millimeter-wave communication systems

Hijab Zahra*, Musa Hussain, Syeda Iffat Naqvi, Syed Muzahir Abbas, Subhas Mukhopadhyay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
68 Downloads (Pure)


A simple and compact antenna with a switchable beam for millimeter-wave communication is proposed in this paper. The antenna has a planar structure, and the design evolution is discussed. The beam switching functionality was achieved by incorporating two PIN diodes in the ground plane of the antenna. By switching ON either of the PIN diodes, the inverted L-shaped stub becomes connected to the ground plane and behaves as a cavity, which causes the dispersion of the radiation pattern. Therefore, a wide-angle (±18 ) beam-switching property can be achieved using a simple and low-cost technique, without the necessity to implement additional conventional circuits. The proposed antenna is characterized by a good performance in terms of return loss, bandwidth, measured gain up to 7.95 dB, and radiation efficiency up to 84%, making it a proper candidate for IoT technology and millimeter-wave 5G devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2870
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2021. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • 5G antenna
  • 28 GHz
  • compact antenna
  • Internet of Things
  • IoT
  • millimeter-wave
  • monopole antenna
  • pattern reconfigurable
  • switched beam


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