A social relations analysis of liking for and by peers

Associations with gender, depression, peer perception, and worry

Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck*, Allison M. Waters, Thomas Kindermann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)


We used social relations modeling (SRM; mixed modeling and SOREMO) to examine liking among peers (affective preferences) in relation to gender and socioemotional problems. Participants (N= 278, age 10 to 13) rated how much they liked each other and reported depressive symptoms, negative beliefs, and social worries. Boys and girls were equally liked, but liked same-gender more than cross-gender peers. Genders showed similar consensus about liking for same-gender peers; rater differences were important for cross-gender liking. Depressed preadolescents were liked less but did not like classmates less. Participants who attributed more negative qualities to peers were less liked and liked others less. SRM showed no associations between worry and affective preferences, whereas others analyses indicated those with high worry were less liked. SRM results were compared to results using more typical methods, and recommendations were made for using same-gender vs. cross-gender ratings and summary affective preference scores.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-81
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Adolescence
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Depression
  • Gender
  • Peer relationships
  • Social anxiety
  • Social relations model

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