A survey of authentication schemes in Telecare Medicine Information Systems

Muhammad Umair Aslam, Abdelouahid Derhab, Kashif Saleem, Haider Abbas*, Mehmet Orgun, Waseem Iqbal, Baber Aslam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


E-Healthcare is an emerging field that provides mobility to its users. The protected health information of the users are stored at a remote server (Telecare Medical Information System) and can be accessed by the users at anytime. Many authentication protocols have been proposed to ensure the secure authenticated access to the Telecare Medical Information System. These protocols are designed to provide certain properties such as: anonymity, untraceability, unlinkability, privacy, confidentiality, availability and integrity. They also aim to build a key exchange mechanism, which provides security against some attacks such as: identity theft, password guessing, denial of service, impersonation and insider attacks. This paper reviews these proposed authentication protocols and discusses their strengths and weaknesses in terms of ensured security and privacy properties, and computation cost. The schemes are divided in three broad categories of one-factor, two-factor and three-factor authentication schemes. Inter-category and intra-category comparison has been performed for these schemes and based on the derived results we propose future directions and recommendations that can be very helpful to the researchers who work on the design and implementation of authentication protocols.
Original languageEnglish
Article number14
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Medical Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017


  • Biometric
  • Password
  • Smart card
  • Telecare medicine information system
  • User anonymity
  • User interaction


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