Absence of entourage: terpenoids commonly found in Cannabis sativa do not modulate the functional activity of Δ9-THC at human CB1 and CB2 receptors

Marina Santiago, Shivani Sachdev, Jonathon C. Arnold, Iain McGregor, Mark Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Compounds present in Cannabis sativa such as phytocannabinoids and terpenoids may act in concert to elicit therapeutic effects. Cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) directly activate cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2); however, it is not known if terpenoids present in Cannabis also affect cannabinoid receptor signaling. Therefore, we examined six common terpenoids alone, and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists, on CB1 and CB2 signaling in vitro.

Materials and Methods: Potassium channel activity in AtT20 FlpIn cells transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors was measured in real time using FLIPR® membrane potential dye in a FlexStation 3 plate reader. Terpenoids were tested individually and in combination for periods up to 30 min. Endogenous somatostatin receptors served as a control for direct effects of drugs on potassium channels.

Results: α-Pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, limonene, and β-myrcene (up to 30–100 μM) did not change membrane potential in AtT20 cells expressing CB1 or CB2, or affect the response to a maximally effective concentration of the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940. The presence of individual or a combination of terpenoids did not affect the hyperpolarization produced by Δ9-THC (10 μM): (CB1: control, 59%±7%; with terpenoids (10 μM each) 55%±4%; CB2: Δ9-THC 16%±5%, with terpenoids (10 μM each) 17%±4%). To investigate possible effect on desensitization of CB1 responses, all six terpenoids were added together with Δ9-THC and signaling measured continuously over 30 min. Terpenoids did not affect desensitization, after 30 min the control hyperpolarization recovered by 63%±6% in the presence of the terpenoids recovery was 61%±5%.

Discussion: None of the six of the most common terpenoids in Cannabis directly activated CB1 or CB2, or modulated the signaling of the phytocannabinoid agonist Δ9-THC. These results suggest that if a phytocannabinoid–terpenoid entourage effect exists, it is not at the CB1 or CB2 receptor level. It remains possible that terpenoids activate CB1 and CB2 signaling pathways that do not involve potassium channels; however, it seems more likely that they may act at different molecular target(s) in the neuronal circuits important for the behavioral effect of Cannabis.
LanguageEnglish
JournalCannabis and Cannabinoid Research
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 29 Jul 2019

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Cannabinoid Receptors
Dronabinol
Terpenes
Cannabis
Potassium Channels
beta-myrcene
Cannabinoids
Membrane Potentials
Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists
Somatostatin Receptors

Cite this

@article{dd4ef1fdc4fc43cd9b5d4a0ea70fb681,
title = "Absence of entourage: terpenoids commonly found in Cannabis sativa do not modulate the functional activity of Δ9-THC at human CB1 and CB2 receptors",
abstract = "Introduction: Compounds present in Cannabis sativa such as phytocannabinoids and terpenoids may act in concert to elicit therapeutic effects. Cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) directly activate cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2); however, it is not known if terpenoids present in Cannabis also affect cannabinoid receptor signaling. Therefore, we examined six common terpenoids alone, and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists, on CB1 and CB2 signaling in vitro.Materials and Methods: Potassium channel activity in AtT20 FlpIn cells transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors was measured in real time using FLIPR{\circledR} membrane potential dye in a FlexStation 3 plate reader. Terpenoids were tested individually and in combination for periods up to 30 min. Endogenous somatostatin receptors served as a control for direct effects of drugs on potassium channels.Results: α-Pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, limonene, and β-myrcene (up to 30–100 μM) did not change membrane potential in AtT20 cells expressing CB1 or CB2, or affect the response to a maximally effective concentration of the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940. The presence of individual or a combination of terpenoids did not affect the hyperpolarization produced by Δ9-THC (10 μM): (CB1: control, 59{\%}±7{\%}; with terpenoids (10 μM each) 55{\%}±4{\%}; CB2: Δ9-THC 16{\%}±5{\%}, with terpenoids (10 μM each) 17{\%}±4{\%}). To investigate possible effect on desensitization of CB1 responses, all six terpenoids were added together with Δ9-THC and signaling measured continuously over 30 min. Terpenoids did not affect desensitization, after 30 min the control hyperpolarization recovered by 63{\%}±6{\%} in the presence of the terpenoids recovery was 61{\%}±5{\%}.Discussion: None of the six of the most common terpenoids in Cannabis directly activated CB1 or CB2, or modulated the signaling of the phytocannabinoid agonist Δ9-THC. These results suggest that if a phytocannabinoid–terpenoid entourage effect exists, it is not at the CB1 or CB2 receptor level. It remains possible that terpenoids activate CB1 and CB2 signaling pathways that do not involve potassium channels; however, it seems more likely that they may act at different molecular target(s) in the neuronal circuits important for the behavioral effect of Cannabis.",
keywords = "phytocannabinoid, cannabinoid receptor, terpenoid, entourage effect, THC, signaling",
author = "Marina Santiago and Shivani Sachdev and Arnold, {Jonathon C.} and Iain McGregor and Mark Connor",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "29",
doi = "10.1089/can.2019.0016",
language = "English",
journal = "Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research",
issn = "2378-8763",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Absence of entourage

T2 - Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research

AU - Santiago,Marina

AU - Sachdev,Shivani

AU - Arnold,Jonathon C.

AU - McGregor,Iain

AU - Connor,Mark

PY - 2019/7/29

Y1 - 2019/7/29

N2 - Introduction: Compounds present in Cannabis sativa such as phytocannabinoids and terpenoids may act in concert to elicit therapeutic effects. Cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) directly activate cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2); however, it is not known if terpenoids present in Cannabis also affect cannabinoid receptor signaling. Therefore, we examined six common terpenoids alone, and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists, on CB1 and CB2 signaling in vitro.Materials and Methods: Potassium channel activity in AtT20 FlpIn cells transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors was measured in real time using FLIPR® membrane potential dye in a FlexStation 3 plate reader. Terpenoids were tested individually and in combination for periods up to 30 min. Endogenous somatostatin receptors served as a control for direct effects of drugs on potassium channels.Results: α-Pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, limonene, and β-myrcene (up to 30–100 μM) did not change membrane potential in AtT20 cells expressing CB1 or CB2, or affect the response to a maximally effective concentration of the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940. The presence of individual or a combination of terpenoids did not affect the hyperpolarization produced by Δ9-THC (10 μM): (CB1: control, 59%±7%; with terpenoids (10 μM each) 55%±4%; CB2: Δ9-THC 16%±5%, with terpenoids (10 μM each) 17%±4%). To investigate possible effect on desensitization of CB1 responses, all six terpenoids were added together with Δ9-THC and signaling measured continuously over 30 min. Terpenoids did not affect desensitization, after 30 min the control hyperpolarization recovered by 63%±6% in the presence of the terpenoids recovery was 61%±5%.Discussion: None of the six of the most common terpenoids in Cannabis directly activated CB1 or CB2, or modulated the signaling of the phytocannabinoid agonist Δ9-THC. These results suggest that if a phytocannabinoid–terpenoid entourage effect exists, it is not at the CB1 or CB2 receptor level. It remains possible that terpenoids activate CB1 and CB2 signaling pathways that do not involve potassium channels; however, it seems more likely that they may act at different molecular target(s) in the neuronal circuits important for the behavioral effect of Cannabis.

AB - Introduction: Compounds present in Cannabis sativa such as phytocannabinoids and terpenoids may act in concert to elicit therapeutic effects. Cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) directly activate cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2); however, it is not known if terpenoids present in Cannabis also affect cannabinoid receptor signaling. Therefore, we examined six common terpenoids alone, and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists, on CB1 and CB2 signaling in vitro.Materials and Methods: Potassium channel activity in AtT20 FlpIn cells transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors was measured in real time using FLIPR® membrane potential dye in a FlexStation 3 plate reader. Terpenoids were tested individually and in combination for periods up to 30 min. Endogenous somatostatin receptors served as a control for direct effects of drugs on potassium channels.Results: α-Pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, linalool, limonene, and β-myrcene (up to 30–100 μM) did not change membrane potential in AtT20 cells expressing CB1 or CB2, or affect the response to a maximally effective concentration of the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940. The presence of individual or a combination of terpenoids did not affect the hyperpolarization produced by Δ9-THC (10 μM): (CB1: control, 59%±7%; with terpenoids (10 μM each) 55%±4%; CB2: Δ9-THC 16%±5%, with terpenoids (10 μM each) 17%±4%). To investigate possible effect on desensitization of CB1 responses, all six terpenoids were added together with Δ9-THC and signaling measured continuously over 30 min. Terpenoids did not affect desensitization, after 30 min the control hyperpolarization recovered by 63%±6% in the presence of the terpenoids recovery was 61%±5%.Discussion: None of the six of the most common terpenoids in Cannabis directly activated CB1 or CB2, or modulated the signaling of the phytocannabinoid agonist Δ9-THC. These results suggest that if a phytocannabinoid–terpenoid entourage effect exists, it is not at the CB1 or CB2 receptor level. It remains possible that terpenoids activate CB1 and CB2 signaling pathways that do not involve potassium channels; however, it seems more likely that they may act at different molecular target(s) in the neuronal circuits important for the behavioral effect of Cannabis.

KW - phytocannabinoid

KW - cannabinoid receptor

KW - terpenoid

KW - entourage effect

KW - THC

KW - signaling

U2 - 10.1089/can.2019.0016

DO - 10.1089/can.2019.0016

M3 - Article

JO - Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research

JF - Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research

SN - 2378-8763

ER -