Active and passive task related behavior, direction following and the inclusion of children with disabilities

Coral Kemp*, Mark Carter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The relationship between specific classroom skills and long-term inclusion of children with primarily intellectual disabilities in regular classrooms was examined. Measures of on-task behavior and direction following behavior were, collected for 19 children with disabilities who had been integrated for 1.5 to 5.5 years in general education classrooms. Data were collected concurrently on teacher nominated average peers in each classroom of children with disabilities. These data were compared with similar data collected on children with disabilities in their first year of school (kindergarten) to see whether the classroom skills of these children changed in relation to their peers. On-task behavior during whole class instruction and direction following behavior was problematic for children with disabilities. There was also preliminary evidence that some classroom skills may be associated with more successful inclusion. There was no evidence of an increasing discrepancy between children with intellectual disabilities and peers in relation to classroom skills. Implications of these findings for including children with disabilities in general education classrooms are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-27
Number of pages14
JournalEducation and Training in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006

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