Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Rarotongan (Cook Islands Maori): linguistic and clinical considerations

Amanda Miller Amberber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This article describes the adaptation of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to the Rarotongan dialect of Cook Islands Maori, a Polynesian language spoken in the Cook Islands and expatriate communities. A brief linguistic sketch of Rarotongan is presented. As Rarotongan is characterised by a complex pronominal system, a versus o possession and optional topicalisation and focus constructions, particular issues arose in obtaining a rigorous adaptation of the BAT. Methods for ensuring effective adaptation across contrastive language pairs and sociocultural aspects of adapting the BAT to Rarotongan are discussed. Obtaining adaptations from several proficient bilingual consultants, comparing versions and group discussion to resolve discrepancies were used for this adaptation and are recommended. It is asserted that every individual has the right to receive accurate, detailed language assessment in each of their languages, irrespective of the languages spoken in the wider community. Further adaptations of the BAT will assist this to be achieved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601-618
Number of pages18
JournalClinical Linguistics and Phonetics
Issue number6-7
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • aphasia
  • Bilingual Aphasia Test
  • Cook Islands Maori
  • language assessment
  • multilingualism
  • Polynesian
  • Rarotongan


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