In this paper, Kalman filtering (KF) and hidden Markov model (HMM) signal processing techniques are coupled to demodulate signals transmitted through noisy fading channels. The demodulation scheme presented can be applied to both digital M-ary differential phase shift keyed (MDPSK) and analog frequency modulated (FM) signals. Adaptive state and parameter estimation algorithms are devised based on the assumption that the transmission channel introduces time-varying gain and phase changes, modelled by a stochastic linear system, and has additive Gaussian noise. Our technique is to use an HMM filter, for signal estimation, coupled with a KF, for channel parameter tracking. The approach taken can easily be generalised for other transmission schemes, such as continuous phase modulated (CPM) signals.