Adaptive self-reflection and resilience: the moderating effects of rumination on insight as a mediator

K. J. Bucknell*, M. Kangas, M. F. Crane

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Self-focused attention literature identifies inconsistencies which suggest that self-reflection does not have a direct relationship with resilient outcomes. This study aimed to clarify the associated mechanisms by (1) exploring the indirect relationships between general and adaptive self-reflection and mental health outcomes via insight, and (2) testing the role of rumination as a moderator of this mediating relationship. Two-hundred and seventy-seven Australian Protestant ministry workers completed an online survey measuring adaptive self-reflection, general self-reflection, insight, rumination, resilience, and well-being. Structural equation modelling identified a moderated mediation. Insight mediated the relationship between adaptive self-reflection and resilience. Rumination moderated this relationship such that when ruminative thought was low, a positive relationship existed between adaptive self-reflection and resilience via insight. When rumination was high, adaptive self-reflection was negatively related to resilience via insight. Similar relationships were found between adaptive self-reflection and well-being, but not when general self-reflection was the independent variable. These results demonstrate one possible mechanism in the relationship between self-reflection and positive mental health, and the conditional role of rumination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111234
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • self-reflection
  • insight
  • rumination
  • resilience
  • well-being


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