Additively manufactured perforated superstrate to improve directive radiation characteristics of electromagnetic source

Touseef Hayat*, Muhammad U. Afzal, Ali Lalbakhsh, Karu P. Esselle

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
23 Downloads (Pure)


Additively manufactured perforated superstrate (AMPS) is presented to realize directive radio frequency (RF) front-end antennas. The superstrate comprises spatially distributed dielectric unit-cell elements with square perforations, which creates a pre-defined transmission phase delay pattern in the propagating electric field. The proposed square perforation has superior transmission phase characteristics compared to traditionally machined circular perforations and full-wave simulations based parametric analysis has been performed to highlight this supremacy. The AMPS is used with a classical electromagnetic-bandgap resonator antenna (ERA) to improve its directive radiation characteristics. A prototype is developed using the most common, low-cost and easily accessible Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) filament. The prototype was rapidly fabricated in less than five hours and weighs 139.3 g., which corresponds to the material cost of only 2.1 USD. The AMPS has remarkably improved the radiation performance of ERA by increasing its far-field directivity from 12.67 dB to 21.12 dB and reducing side-lobe level from 7.3 dB to 17.2 dB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153445-153452
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
  • Additive manufacturing (AM)
  • directivity enhancement
  • perforated dielectric
  • rapid prototyping
  • transmission phase shift

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