Controlling the release rate of biocides (antifouling agents) from a paint coating is a key issue for the development of multi-season antifouling marine coatings. One promising approach is the use of nanoparticles onto which biocides are adsorbed to prevent premature depletion of the biocide. Adsorption of one novel (Medetomidine) and six commercially available and widely used antifouling biocides (Chlorothalonile, Dichlofluanid, Diuron, Irgarol, Seanine, Tolylfluanid) onto oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3, CuO, MgO, SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) was investigated by HPLC and NMR in different organic solvents. Large differences in adsorption strength depending on the type of nanoparticle and solvent employed were observed. It was shown that nanoparticles coordinate preferentially with the imidazole moiety of Medetomidine. Independent of the type of particle this interaction was considerably stronger in comparison to the other biocides. However, the interaction strength was strongly dependant on the type of solvent, where the largest strongest interaction was achieved in o-xylene. In addition field tests were performed where a considerable decrease in release rate was displayed from coatings containing Medetomidine adsorbed to nanoparticles compared to coatings containing Medetomidine as single additive.
- Marine coatings