Site-specific structural characterization of glycoproteins is important for understanding the exact functional relevance of protein glycosylation. Resulting partly from the multiple layers of structural complexity of the attached glycans, the system-wide site-specific characterization of protein glycosylation, defined as glycoproteomics, is still far from trivial leaving the N- and O-linked glycoproteomes significantly under-defined. However, recent years have seen significant advances in glycoproteomics driven, in part, by the developments of dedicated workflows and efficient sample preparation, including glycopeptide enrichment and prefractionation. In addition, glycoproteomics has benefitted from the continuous performance enhancement and more intelligent use of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) instrumentation and a wider selection of specialized software tackling the unique challenges of glycoproteomics data. Together these advances promise more streamlined N- and O-linked glycoproteome analysis. Tangible examples include system-wide glycoproteomics studies detecting thousands of intact glycopeptides from hundreds of glycoproteins from diverse biological samples. With a strict focus on the system-wide site-specific analysis of protein N- and O-linked glycosylation, we review the recent advances in LC-MS/MS based glycoproteomics. The review opens with a more general discussion of experimental designs in glycoproteomics and sample preparation prior to LC-MS/MS based data acquisition. Although many challenges still remain, it becomes clear that glycoproteomics, one of the last frontiers in proteomics, is gradually maturing enabling a wider spectrum of researchers to access this new emerging research discipline. The next milestone in analytical glycobiology is being reached allowing the glycoscientist to address the functional importance of protein glycosylation in a system-wide yet protein-specific manner.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2014|
- Mass spectrometry
- Protein glycosylation