Quartz-feldspar augen gneisses, quartz augen schists and trondhjemites outcrop at Nooldoonooldoona Waterhole in the southwestern corner of the Proterozoic Mt Painter Inlier, northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia. These rocks were previously interpreted as having different origins and ages. However, we argue that all rock types were the result of deformation and strong metasomatic alternation of one common precursor: The Mt Neill Granite. Our conclusion is based on field observations that show that the different lithologies grade into each other and that intrusive contacts are lacking. Whole-rock major and trace-element analyses also point to a common protolith. Finally, Pb/Pb dating of magmatic zircons gave the same ca 1576 Ma age for the different rock types. Our findings necessitate a re-evaluation of the published regional geology and lithostratigraphy of the Mt Painter Inlier. They also indicate that extreme care should be taken in the classification and genetic interpretation of rocks that have experienced extensive metasomatic alteration, which is common in many high-grade terrains in Australia.