Allergic rhinitis

Jean Bousquet, Josep M. Anto, Claus Bachert, Ilaria Baiardini, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich, G. Walter Canonica, Erik Melén, Oscar Palomares, Glenis K. Scadding, Alkis Togias, Sanna Toppila-Salmi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

364 Citations (Scopus)


Allergic rhinitis (AR) is caused by immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reactions to inhaled allergens and is one of the most common chronic conditions globally. AR often co-occurs with asthma and conjunctivitis and is a global health problem causing major burden and disability worldwide. Risk factors include inhalant and occupational allergens, as well as genetic factors. AR impairs quality of life, affects social life, school and work, and is associated with substantial economic costs. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative classified AR into intermittent or persistent and mild or moderate/severe. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history and, if needed in patients with uncontrolled rhinitis despite medications or with long-lasting symptoms, on skin tests or the presence of serum-specific IgE antibodies to allergens. The most frequently used pharmacological treatments include oral, intranasal or ocular H 1-antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids or a fixed combination of intranasal H 1-antihistamines and corticosteroids. Allergen immunotherapy prescribed by a specialist using high-quality extracts in stratified patients is effective in patients with persistent symptoms. Real-world data obtained by mobile technology offer new insights into AR phenotypes and management. The outlook for AR includes a better understanding of novel multimorbid phenotypes, health technology assessment and patient-centred shared decision-making.

Original languageEnglish
Article number95
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalNature Reviews Disease Primers
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes


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