Alzheimer’s disease was first described in 1906 and since then tremendous efforts have been made to fully understand the disease pathology and to find a cure for this neurodegenerative disease. The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s is still difficult, especially in early stages of the disease. Current treatment of Alzheimer’s only ameliorates the symptoms but fails to provide a therapy. Over the last decades, animal models have been proven valuable in elucidating insights of the pathology. In vitro models using patient-derived cells are currently emerging and hold great promise in understanding the disease pathophysiology. Here, we introduce the neurobiology and genetic features of Alzheimer’s and describe what we have learned from studies employing mouse models and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.