An alternative whole-body marker set to accurately and reliably quantify joint kinematics during load carriage

Gavin K. Lenton*, Tim L. A. Doyle, David J. Saxby, David G. Lloyd

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)


    Body armor covers anatomical landmarks that would otherwise be used to track trunk and pelvis movement in motion analysis. This study developed and evaluated a new marker set, and compared it to placing markers on the skin and over-top of body armor. In our method, pelvis and trunk motions were measured using a custom-built sacral and upper-back marker cluster, respectively. Joint angles and ranges of motion were determined while participants walked without and with body armor. Angles were obtained from the new marker set and compared against conventional marker sets placed on the skin or over-top the body armor. Bland-Altman analyses compared the agreement of kinematic parameters between marker sets, while joint angle waveforms were compared using inter-protocol coefficient of multiple correlations (CMCs). The intra- and inter-session similarities of joint angle waveforms from each marker set were also assessed using CMCs. There was a strong agreement between joint angles from the new marker set and markers placed directly on the skin at key anatomical landmarks. The agreement worsened with markers placed on top of body armor. Inter-protocol CMCs comparing markers on body armor to the new marker set were poor compared to CMCs between skin-mounted markers and the new marker set. Intra- and inter-session repeatability were higher for the new marker set compared to placing markers over-top of body armor. The new marker set provides a viable alternative for researchers to reliably measure trunk and pelvis motion when equipment, such as body armor, obscures marker placement.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)318-324
    Number of pages7
    JournalGait and Posture
    Publication statusPublished - May 2017


    • motion analysis
    • marker set
    • load carriage
    • walking
    • pelvis
    • repeatability


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