An attack-localizing watermarking scheme for natural language documents

Gaurav Gupta*, Josef Pieprzyk, Hua Xiong Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceeding contributionpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a text watermarking scheme that embeds a bit-stream watermark Wi in a text document P preserving the meaning, context, and flow of the document. The document is viewed as a set of paragraphs, each paragraph being a set of sentences. The sequence of paragraphs and sentences used to embed watermark bits is permuted using a secret key. Then, English language sentence transformations are used to modify sentence lengths, thus embedding watermarking bits in the Least Significant Bits (LSB) of the sentences' cardinalities. The embedding and extracting algorithms are public, while the secrecy and security of the watermark depends on a secret key K. The probability of False Positives is extremely small, hence avoiding incidental occurrences of our watermark in random text documents. Majority voting provides security against text addition, deletion, and swapping attacks, further reducing the probability of False Positives. The scheme is secure against the general attacks on text watermarks such as reproduction (photocopying, FAX), reformatting, synonym substitution, text addition, text deletion, text swapping, paragraph shuffling and collusion attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2006 ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security, ASIACCS '06
EditorsFerng-Ching Lin, Der-Tsai Lee, Bao-Shuh Lin, Shiuhpyng Shieh, Sushil Jajodia
Place of PublicationNew York, N.Y.
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Pages157-165
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)1595932720
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006
Event2006 ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security, ASIACCS '06 - Taipei, Taiwan, Province of China
Duration: 21 Mar 200724 Mar 2007

Other

Other2006 ACM Symposium on Information, Computer and Communications Security, ASIACCS '06
CountryTaiwan, Province of China
CityTaipei
Period21/03/0724/03/07

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