Fifteen patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 26 matched older controls engaged in a lexical-decision task with a list of words and nonwords while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Two repetition conditions were embedded in the list: words repeated at relatively long lags or words repeated shortly after a brief masked presentation. Although older controls displayed behavioral and ERP repetition priming for words repeated at long lags, consistent with previous studies, AD patients displayed neither. In contrast, both controls and AD patients displayed an ERP repetition priming effect for words repeated shortly after a brief masked presentation. ERP priming effects for masked and unmasked repetition differed in older controls, and additionally, the ERP masked priming effect differed between controls and AD patients. Results are discussed in the context of studies that have examined memory performance in brain-damaged populations using an impaired-intact dichotomy.