An illusory interiority: Interrogating the discourse/s of inclusion

Linda J. Graham*, Roger Slee

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    210 Citations (Scopus)


    It is generally accepted that the notion of inclusion derived or evolved from the practices of mainstreaming or integrating students with disabilities into regular schools. Halting the practice of segregating children with disabilities was a progressive social movement. The value of this achievement is not in dispute. However, our charter as scholars and cultural vigilantes (Slee & Allan, 2001) is to always look for how we can improve things; to avoid stasis and complacency we must continue to ask, how can we do it better? Thus, we must ask ourselves uncomfortable questions and develop a critical perspective that Foucault characterised as an 'ethic of discomfort' (Rabinow & Rose, 2003, p. xxvi) by following the Nietzschean principle where one acts 'counter to our time and thereby on our time ... for the benefit of a time to come' (Nietzsche, 1874, p. 60 in Rabinow & Rose, 2003, p. xxvi). This paper begins with a fundamental question for those participating in inclusive education research and scholarship - when we talk of including, into what do we seek to include?.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)277-293
    Number of pages17
    JournalEducational Philosophy and Theory
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • Inclusive education
    • Interiority/exteriority
    • Poststructuralism


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