The electrification of transportation has been developed to support energy efficiency and CO2 reduction. As a result, electric vehicles (EVs) have become more popular in the current transport system to create more efficient energy. In recent years, this increase in EVs as well as renewable energy resources (RERs) has led to a major issue for power system networks. This paper studies electrical vehicles (EVs) and their applications in the smart grid and provides practical solutions for EV charging strategies in a smart power system to overcome the issues associated with large-scale EV penetrations. The research first reviews the EV battery infrastructure and charging strategies and introduces the main impacts of uncontrolled charging on the power grid. Then, it provides a practical overview of the existing and future solutions to manage the large-scale integration of EVs into the network. The simulation results for two controlled strategies of maximum sensitivity selection (MSS) and genetic algorithm (GA) optimization are presented and reviewed. A comparative analysis was performed to prove the application and validity of the solution approaches. This also helps researchers with the application of the optimization approaches on EV charging strategies. These two algorithms were implemented on a modified IEEE 23 kV medium voltage distribution system with switched shunt capacitors (SSCs) and a low voltage residential network, including EVs and nonlinear EV battery chargers.
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- EV charging
- uncontrolled charging
- online coordinated charging
- battery charger harmonics