In many countries, the construction industry has an unenviable reputation in terms of the occupational safety and health of the workforce. Occupational injuries and illnesses are highly prevalent in the construction industry compared to other industries. The situation in developing countries is worse than in developed countries. However, the bulk of construction occupational safety and health (OSH) literature has focused on issues in developed countries. Seeking to address this imbalance, this edited collection, which is the first of its kind, focuses on construction OSH in developing countries. This introductory chapter highlights the disparity in OSH performance in developed and developing countries, and juxtaposes this against the limited body of research on construction OSH in developing countries. The chapter presents some benefits, challenges and opportunities regarding construction OSH in developing countries and then closes with a summary of the chapters in the book.