An organic Write-Once-Read-Many (WORM) device based on poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the active layer was fabricated with an inverted architecture. Insertion of an ultrathin layer of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) between the bottom electrode and the PEDOT:PSS resulted in a systematic and substantial decrease in turn-on voltage, from 7.0 V to less than 1.0 V. An optimal thickness of the PMMA layer was found to yield the lowest consistent turn-on voltage of ∼0.8 V, with 0.5 V being the lowest value of all fabricated devices. The switching mechanism was attributed to filamentary doping of the PEDOT:PSS. Insertion of the PMMA acted to protect the underlying ZnO from being etched by the acidic PEDOT:PSS as well as to improve its wetting properties. Devices were demonstrated on both ITO and aluminum bottom electrodes, with aluminum yielding the highest ON/OFF ratios in the study. Owing to their inverted architecture, the devices demonstrated good stability, and the retention time of the ON-state was determined to be greater than twenty months while stored in air for devices with ITO bottom electrodes. In addition to deposition via spin-coating, blade-coating was demonstrated as a viable processing technique for applications requiring rapid or large-area manufacturing.
- Inverted architecture
- Organic memory