An IoT-enabled portable sensing system with MWCNTs/PDMS sensor for nitrate detection in water

Fowzia Akhter*, H. R. Siddiquei, Md Eshrat E. Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Low-cost and low-power nitrate sensor and sensing system are necessary for real-time water quality monitoring. A novel interdigital nitrate sensor for aquaculture is proposed in this research. The sensor is fabricated by applying the mould-based solution casting method. The electrodes are developed using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the substrate is formed using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The sensor is characterized to determine various temperatures and nitrate concentrations by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The developed sensor can detect and distinguish a wide range of nitrate concentrations from 0.01 ppm to 30 ppm. A wireless portable intelligent sensing system is also developed for water quality surveillance in real-time and receiving feedback from experts. A machine learning algorithm is used to train the microcontroller-based system and determine temperature and nitrate concentrations in actual water samples. The sensors are compared with the standard UV– Vis Spectrometry method for validation. The sensor and the sensing system's performances are highly repeatable reliable and stable to be a part of a smart sensing network for continuous water quality monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109424
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalMeasurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Nitrate
  • PDMS
  • Portable system
  • Water quality monitoring


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