The hypocerebral organs of Euperipatoides kanangrensis are a pair of spherical vesicles located ventral to the cerebral ganglia. They develop in the embryo from the most anterior pair of ventral organs, in the antennal segment. The wall of each hypocerebral organ is a dense epithelium of elongate cells with peripheral nuclei. The cytoplasm of the cells includes numerous mitochondria, Golgi bodies and microtubules. The small lumen, located eccentrically within the organ, contains concentrically layered electron-dense material resembling cuticle. Each hypocerebral organ is enclosed by a layer of extracellular matrix continuous with that surrounding the adjacent cerebral ganglion. There are no nerve connections between ganglion and organ, but cellular connections traverse the intervening matrix and could serve as a communication pathway. The ultrastructure of the hypocerebral organs indicates that they are glands.