Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has detrimental effects on body composition, metabolic health, physical functioning, bone mineral density (BMD) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in men with prostate cancer. We investigated whether a 12-month home-based progressive resistance training (PRT) programme, instituted at the start of ADT, could prevent these adverse effects. Methods: Twenty-five patients scheduled to receive at least 12 months of ADT were randomly assigned to either usual care (UC) (n = 12) or PRT (n = 13) starting immediately after their first ADT injection. Body composition, body cell mass (BCM; a functional component of lean body mass), BMD, physical function, insulin sensitivity and HRQOL were measured at 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months. Data were analysed by a linear mixed model. Results: ADT had a negative impact on body composition, BMD, physical function, glucose metabolism and HRQOL. At 12 months, the PRT group had greater reductions in BCM by − 1.9 ± 0.8 % (p = 0.02) and higher gains in fat mass by 3.1 ± 1.0 % (p = 0.002), compared to the UC group. HRQOL domains were maintained or improved in the PRT versus UC group at 6 weeks (general health, p = 0.04), 6 months (vitality, p = 0.02; social functioning, p = 0.03) and 12 months (mental health, p = 0.01; vitality, p = 0.02). A significant increase in the Matsuda Index in the PRT versus UC group was noted at 6 weeks (p = 0.009) but this difference was not maintained at subsequent timepoints. Between-group differences favouring the PRT group were also noted for physical activity levels (step count) (p = 0.02). No differences in measures of BMD or physical function were detected at any time point. Conclusion: A home-based PRT programme instituted at the start of ADT may counteract detrimental changes in body composition, improve physical activity and mental health over 12 months. Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001311448
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- Adverse effects
- Androgen deprivation therapy
- Progressive resistance training
- Prostate cancer