The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on function and structure of the aorta was studied in the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat model of cystic renal disease and Lewis controls. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was recorded under urethane anesthesia (1.3 g/kg ip) in mixed-sex animals aged 6 and 12 wk and in 12-wk-old animals treated with perindopril (3 mg·kg±1·day±1 po) from age 6-12 wk. Tail-cuff systolic pressures were recorded over the treatment period. After PWV measurements, animals were euthanized and the aorta was removed for histomorphological and calcium analysis. Hypertension in LPK at 6 and 12 wk was associated with a shift of the PWV curve upward and to the right, indicating a decrease in aortic compliance, which was significantly reduced by perindopril. LPK demonstrated greater aortic calcification (6 wk: 123 ± 19 vs. 65 ± 7 and 12 wk: 406 ± 6 vs. 67 ± 6 ±mol/g, P ± 0.001, LPK vs. Lewis, respectively). This was reduced by treatment with perindopril (172 ± 48 ±mol/g, 12 wk LPK P ± 0.001). Medial cross-sectional area and elastic modulus/wall stress of the aorta were greater in LPK vs. Lewis control animals at 6 and 12 wk of age and showed an age-related increase that was prevented by treatment with perindopril (P ± 0.001). Perindopril also ameliorated the degradation of elastin, increase in collagen content, and medial elastocalcinosis seen in 12-wk LPK. Overall, perindopril improved the structural and functional indices of aortic stiffness in the LPK rats, demonstrating a capacity for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition to limit vascular remodeling in chronic kidney disease.