Anti-plasmodial activity of aroylhydrazone and thiosemicarbazone iron chelators

Effect on erythrocyte membrane integrity, parasite development and the intracellular labile iron pool

Asikiya Walcourt*, Joseph Kurantsin-Mills, John Kwagyan, Babafemi B. Adenuga, Danuta S. Kalinowski, David B. Lovejoy, Darius J. R. Lane, Des R. Richardson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Iron chelators inhibit the growth of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture and in animal and human studies. We previously reported the anti-plasmodial activity of the chelators, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311), 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4mT), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (N4pT). In fact, these ligands showed greater growth inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (7G8) strains of P. falciparum in culture compared to desferrioxamine (DFO). The present study examined the effects of 311, N4mT and N4pT on erythrocyte membrane integrity and asexual parasite development While the characteristic biconcave disk shape of the erythrocytes was unaffected, the chelators caused very slight hemolysis at IC50 values that inhibited parasite growth. The chelators 311, N4mT and N4pT affected all stages of the intra-erythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of P. falciparum in culture. However, while these ligands primarily affected the ring-stage, DFO inhibited primarily trophozoite and schizont-stages. Ring, trophozoite and schizont-stages of the IDC were inhibited by significantly lower concentrations of 311, N4mT, and N4pT (IC50 = 4.45 +/- 1.70, 10.30 +/- 4.40, and 3.64 +/- 2.00 mu M, respectively) than DFO (IC50 = 23.43 +/- 3.40 mu M). Complexation of 311, N4mT and N4pT with iron reduced their anti-plasmodial activity. Estimation of the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP) in erythrocytes showed that the chelation efficacy of 311, N4mT and N4pT corresponded to their anti-plasmodial activities, suggesting that the LIP may be a potential source of non-heme iron for parasite metabolism within the erythrocyte. This study has implications for malaria chemotherapy that specifically disrupts parasite iron utilization. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-51
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Volume129
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Aroylhydrazone
  • Thiosemicarbazone
  • Iron chelator
  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • Erythrocytes
  • PYRIDOXAL ISONICOTINOYL HYDRAZONE
  • RED-BLOOD-CELLS
  • MALARIA PARASITE
  • IN-VITRO
  • ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY
  • CHLOROQUINE-RESISTANT
  • FALCIPARUM MALARIA
  • OVERLOAD DISEASE
  • IRON(III)
  • ANALOGS

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