Objective: To test the hypothesis that Sydenham chorea (SC) immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies bind to specific neuronal surface proteins, whereas IgG from patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) or Tourette syndrome (TS) do not bind to neuronal surface proteins. Methods: We used live differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, which have neuronal and dopaminergic characteristics. Using flow cytometry, we measured serum IgG cell surface binding in patients with SC (n = 11), PANDAS (n = 12), and TS (n = 11), and compared the findings to healthy controls (n = 11) and other neurologic controls (n = 11). In order to determine the specificity of binding to neuronal antigens, we also used a non-neuronal cell line, HEK 293. Results: The mean IgG cell surface binding was significantly higher in the SC group compared to all other groups (p < 0.001). By contrast, there was no difference between the PANDAS or TS groups and the controls. Using the non-neuronal HEK-293 cells, there was no significant difference in IgG cell surface binding between any groups. Conclusions: Serum autoantibodies that bind to neuronal cell surface antigens are present in SC, but not in PANDAS or TS. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that SC is due to a pathogenic autoantibody, but weaken the autoantibody hypothesis in PANDAS and TS.