Apodization for systems of high f-number

R. L. Gordon, G. W. Forbes

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    The exit pupil distribution that maximizes the mean encircled energy fraction over some interval along a system’s line of symmetry is found here for both two-and three-dimensional geometries. Such a merit function has been optimized previously by using the Debye model for the diffracted field, but this is not valid for the systems studied here; the more general Kirchhoff integral must be used. Optimal pupil functions for these systems are shown to depend on an additional parameter and represent a new family of solutions with nontrivial phase. Taylor series are derived for these functions, and they provide a powerful verification of the numerical results.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1243-1254
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 1997


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