Applicants faking good: evidence of item bias in the NEO PI-R

Barbara Griffin*, Beryl Hesketh, David Grayson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Faking good by applicants threatens the validity of using personality measures in selection. Previous research suggests that Conscientiousness is the most easily faked while Openness to Experience is the least easily faked of the Big 5 measures. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the effect of faking on the NEO PI-R facets of these measures. When comparing applicant with student responses, differential item functioning (DIF) was found in four of the Conscientiousness facets and in all the Openness to Experience facets. The practical implications of these findings for the use of personality tests in selection are discussed, together with ideas for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1545-1558
Number of pages14
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - May 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Conscientiousness
  • Faking
  • Openness to Experience
  • Personality measures
  • Personnel selection


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