Cancer is a heterogeneous disease that requires a multimodal approach to diagnose, manage and treat. A better understanding of the disease biology can lead to identification of novel diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and the discovery of the novel therapeutics with the goal of improving patient outcomes. Employing advanced technologies can facilitate this, enabling better diagnostic and treatment for cancer patients. In this regard, microfluidic technology has emerged as a promising tool in the studies of cancer, including single cancer cell analysis, modeling angiogenesis and metastasis, drug screening and liquid biopsy. Microfluidic technologies have opened new ways to study tumors in the preclinical and clinical settings. In this chapter, we highlight novel application of this technology in area of fundamental, translational and clinical cancer research.