Cancer describes a diverse group of over 100 diseases, with over 12 million new cases and over 7 million cancer deaths in 2008 globally. It remains a major cause of death due to disease in humans and a great burden to society. Application of nanobiotechnology in cancer has resulted in the creation of a new field, nanooncology and a revolution in cancer prevention (protection of skin cancer and nanochemoprevention), early diagnosis (detecting single gene mutation and cancer cells in blood samples, and improving magnetic resonance imaging contrast), conventional cancer treatment (nanosurgery improves surgical margin and removal of metastatic lymph nodes, nanocarrier for drug delivery of specific chemotherapy and targeted therapy, enhancing radiotherapy by nanoparticles), theranostics (nano-tumour ablation to treat inoperable cancers, nanoimmunotherapy, cancer stem-cell nanotherapy, and nano-brain cancer therapy), as well as improving in molecular individualised medicine. This review summarises the recent advances in nanooncology, focusing on relevant properties of nanoparticles and their application in cancer studies. Nanooncology will have a promising future in cancer treatment.
- nanoparticle based tumour ablation